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Entering the European market for mangoes

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Quality issues, phytosanitary checks and unpredictable supplies make the mango business in Europe challenging for both importers and exporters. For exporters with a reliable supply, the most profitable route to market is to become part of a retail supply programme and avoid the seasonal competition of the leading suppliers Brazil and Peru.

1. What requirements must mangoes comply with to be allowed on the European market?

Fresh mangoes must comply with the general requirements for fresh fruit and vegetables. You can find these in the general buyer requirements for fresh fruit and vegetables on the CBI market information platform. You can also use My Trade Assistant of Access2Markets, which provides an overview of export requirements for mangoes (code 08045000) per country.

What are mandatory requirements?

Pesticide residues and contaminants

Pesticide residues are one of the crucial issues for fruit and vegetable suppliers. To avoid health and environmental risks, the European Union has set maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides and other contaminants, such as heavy metals, in and on food products. Products exceeding the MRLs are withdrawn from the market. For substances that are not yet included in the European regulation, the default MRL applies, which is 0.01 mg/kg.

Note that buyers in several EU Member States, such as the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Austria, use even lower maximum residue levels than those established by European legislation.

Microbiological criteria for fresh cut mango

The risk of microbiological contamination increases when mangoes are being processed. For fresh pre-cut fruit (ready-to-eat), the following microbiological criteria apply:

  • E.coli contamination must be below 100 cfu/g during the manufacturing process. Having two out of five samples up to the 1000 cfu/g limit is still acceptable.
  • Salmonella in cut fruit must be absent throughout their shelf life, at least in five samples of 25 g.

Phytosanitary regulation for fruit flies in mangoes

Mangoes are a high-risk fruit concerning fruit flies (Tephritidae). Therefore, a phytosanitary document is required for exporting mangoes to Europe and hydrothermal treatments (also called hot water treatment) prior to export are the standard.

The European Directive (EU) 2019/523 requires phytosanitary certificates for mangoes to include one of the following statements, which must be communicated by the national plant protection organisation in the country of origin in advance:

  1. The fruits originate in a country recognised as free from Tephritidae (non-European);
  2. The fruits originate in an area established by the national plant protection organisation in the country of origin as being free from Tephritidae (non-European);
  3. No signs of Tephritidae (non-European) have been observed at the place of production and in its immediate surrounding since the beginning of the last complete cycle of vegetation (this includes official inspections at least monthly during the three months prior to harvesting and on the harvested fruit). Information on traceability must be indicated on the certificates;
  4. The product has been subjected to an effective treatment to ensure freedom from Tephritidae (non-European). The treatment data should be indicated on the certificates.

This requirement puts more pressure on plant health authorities. Authorities in producing countries have to be able to declare a region pest free or check on specific areas and product treatments. If local authorities are not sufficiently equipped for this phytosanitary control, it will affect your potential to export fresh mangoes to Europe.


Quality standard

Information on quality, size, packaging and labelling requirements for mangoes can be found in:

At the very least, mangoes should comply with the general quality requirements (see Table 1). At minimum, Europe almost exclusively requires Class I mangoes. Mangoes in this class must be of good quality and within the permissible tolerance levels. In no case may the defects affect the fruit flesh, the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the packaging.

Table 1: Quality requirements and permissible tolerances for fresh Class I mangoes

General quality requirements (all classes)

  1. intact;
  1. sound, not affected by rotting or deterioration;
  1. clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter;
  1. fresh in appearance;
  1. practically free from pests and damage caused by pests;
  1. free from black stains or trails which extend under the skin;
  1. free from marked bruising;
  1. free from damage caused by low temperature;
  1. free from abnormal external moisture;
  1. free from any foreign smell or taste;
  1. able to withstand transport and handling.

Additional requirements and permissible tolerances for Class I mangoes

  1. a slight defect in shape;
  1. slight skin defects due to rubbing or sunburn and suberised stains due to resin;
  1. exudation (elongated trails included) not exceeding 3, 4, 5, 6 cm2 for size groups A, B, C, D respectively;
  1. slight bruising;
  1. scattered rust-coloured lenticels;
  1. a yellowing of green varieties due to exposure to direct sunlight not exceeding 40% of the surface of the fruit, excluding necrotic stains;
  1. a tolerance of 10% is allowed for fruit that meets Class II standards;
  1. a tolerance of 10%, by number or weight, of mangoes not meeting the sizing requirements is allowed.

Figure 1: Mango with quality ‘Extra’ Class, Class I and Class II (from left to right)

Mango with quality ‘Extra’ Class, Class I and Class II (from left to right)

Source: OECD (2012), Mangoes, International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables, OECD Publishing, Paris  


Size and packaging

Fresh mangoes are classified according to Size Codes A, B, C and D. Size is determined by the weight of the fruit or by count.

Table 2: Size codes for mangoes

Size code

Weight in grams

Maximum permissible difference between fruit within the package in grams













Source: UNECE standards for mangoes

The common mango varieties are mostly traded in packing size 7 or 8, meaning 7 to 8 mangoes per 4 kg box, which is the preferred size in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France. In Germany, size 6/7 is also common, since large mangoes are popular. In Scandinavia mostly smaller sizes are sold individually. Spain is more flexible with sizes and can handle both large and small sizes. Mango seasons always start with smaller fruit, but prices generally adjust when mangoes reach size 9.

Packaging requirements vary among customers and market segments. They must at least be packed in new, clean and quality packaging to prevent damage and protect the product properly. Common packaging for mangoes includes 4 kg cardboard boxes.

Additional protection to extend shelf life

To protect the fruit, coatings can be used, such as beeswax (white or yellow), carnauba wax, shellac or microcrystalline wax. When supplying organic mangoes, the coating should be organic as well, such as organic beeswax or carnauba wax. There is also research being done with other natural coatings, such as tests with natural coatings of cassava starch and citric pectin by the National University of Colombia.

There are several developments in protecting the shelf life of mangoes. As a supplier you should follow these developments. For example, new innovations include Apeel, a plant-based protection that keeps moisture in the fruit and slows down the influence of oxygen and spoiling rate. The technology was recently adopted for the mangoes of Nature’s Pride in the Netherlands. Another solution is offered by Hazel Technologies that uses 1-MCP technology to reduce the respiration rate and increase resistance to ethylene. This technology was adopted by the Peruvian mango exporters Fundo Los Paltos and FLP of Peru SAC.

Note that there is a European MRL for 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) of 0.01mg/kg, although it is difficult to detect as a residue. However, the use of 1-MCP can be detected by a recently developed test.


What additional requirements do buyers often have?


The fibreless mango varieties have become the standard for most buyers in Europe. Kent is highly appreciated, followed by Keitt mangoes. Kent is a fibreless variety and valued for its taste and easy ripening. Keitt is a variety that comes to market a little later in the season. Buyers are aware that these varieties cannot cover the full demand for mangoes and other varieties are still needed.

The Palmer variety is almost fibreless and often replaces orchards with the less popular Tommy Atkins, especially in Brazil. These mangoes are very common in Brazil and grow in areas where the cultivation of Kent and Keitt is more complicated. Tommy Atkins is still commercialised in Europe, but at a fast decreasing pace due to the fibrous flesh.

As long as the market for mangoes depend on different climate zones, Palmer and other varieties can coexist with Kent and Keitt. The most exotic varieties are only required by specialist mango buyers and ethnic wholesalers.


The maturity of mangoes must be sufficient to enable them to continue the ripening process. The colour and firmness may vary according to the variety, but there should be conformity throughout the batch.

Additionally, buyers often have specific preferences, either for ripening purposes or just-in-time delivery to a specific end client. Therefore, it is important to discuss specifications such as internal maturity level and brix level with your client.


  • Check with your buyer on the required maturity level, such as brix (sugar content) and dry matter (usually between 14% and 16.5%). This can vary depending on the variety, time to market and buyer preference.
  • See the stages for mango maturity in the Mango Maturity & Ripeness Guide from Mango.org.


Common certifications for mangoes include GlobalG.A.P. for good agricultural practices and BRCGS, IFS or similar HACCP-based food safety management systems for packing and processing facilities. Management systems recognised by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) are most recommended.


  • Start with your GlobalG.A.P. certification before trying to export to Europe. It is almost a basic requirement, especially when you want your product to end up in large retail chains.

Sustainability and social compliance

Mango cultivation often involves small growers. For fruit collectors and exporters, it is important to show that they are engaged in the well-being of their production sources, both socially and environmentally. This is a growing concern for many buyers and retailers. The best way to do this is through adapting social and environmental standards, such as Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit (SMETA) and GlobalG.A.P.

In the near future you can expect new environmental and social initiatives, with standards that become more extensive and with regular audits. For example, the Sustainable Trade Initiative for Fruit and Vegetables (SIFAV), a private covenant between European importers and retailers, has formulated new goals towards 2025 that include a fair living wage and the reduction of the carbon footprint.

Retail chains sometimes have their own standards, such as Tesco and the Tesco Nurture programme, an add-on module to GlobalG.A.P..

The Green Deal

In the coming years the European Green Deal will influence how resources are used and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The new EU policies on sustainability will prepare Europe in becoming the first climate-neutral continent by 2050.

The Farm to Fork Strategy is at the heart of the European Green Deal, aiming to make food systems fair, healthy and environmentally friendly. It will ensure sustainable food production and address for example packaging and food waste. EU trade agreements with several countries, such as Peru and Brazil (Mercosur), already include rules on trade and sustainable development – other countries are expected to follow. For suppliers of fresh fruit and vegetables, it is important to look ahead of the increasing standards and try to be in the frontline of the developments.


What are the requirements for niche markets?

Quality for special varieties and tree-ripened mangoes

Special mango varieties such as Nam Dok Mai and Alphonso as well as common varieties that are tree ripened and airfreighted are sold in a high market segment. It is crucial for your buyer to receive a perfect product. To achieve this, you must have a perfect timing for fruit picking, reduce post-harvest transit times, maintain a perfect cold chain and excellent quality control, and pay extra attention to packaging.


  • Invest extra in packing when supplying airfreighted mangoes or special varieties. This will protect the fruit, but also helps in the presentation of your product.


Organic certification for mangoes is required by a small, but growing niche market. Organic mangoes are mostly traded by specialised organic fruit importers, such as ProNatura (France), Biotropic (Germany), Eosta and OTC Organics (Netherlands).

To market organic products in Europe, you must use organic production methods according to European legislation and apply for an organic certificate with an accredited certifier.

Note that in January 2022 the new legislation Regulation (EU) 2018/848 will come into force after a year’s delay due to COVID-19. Inspection of organic products will become stricter to prevent fraud and producers in third countries will have to comply with the same set of rules as those producing in the European Union.

A new technology for labelling organic mangoes is laser, which avoids the use of plastic packaging and stickers to mark organic mangoes. This is for example implemented in the Spar supermarkets in Austria.


  • Consider organic mangoes as a plus, not as a must. Remember that implementing organic production and becoming certified can be expensive; you must be prepared to comply with the entire organic certification process.
  • Keep up to date on the new developments in the organic market, such as innovative packaging and labelling for organic fruit. Laser technology is likely an investment that your buyer will do, although it may become a new standard for exporters in the future.
  • Read the buyer requirements for fresh fruit and vegetables on the CBI market information platform to learn more about organic.

2. Through what channels can you get mangoes on the European market?

Most mangoes are imported by specialised traders, some of which have their own packing and ripening facilities. Ready-to-eat, ripened and fresh cut mangoes are popular for supermarkets, but you will also find opportunities in the wholesale channel.

How is the end market segmented?

Main segment

The main segment for mangoes are Class I mangoes and common varieties such as Kent and Keitt, either conventional or ripened in the destination country. Class II mangoes are not common, but odd sizes or mangoes that fail to meet the usual specifications are sold for any acceptable price. See also the buyer requirements above.

High segment: Tree-ripened, fresh cut and organic

Common mangoes can also be shipped tree ripened by air and placed in a high segment. The best time for airfreighted mangoes is when the market demand for mangoes is strong, which is usually between the end of November and the end of December. Many of the large mango traders also deal in air-flown mangoes for specific client groups. 

Fresh cut and organic mangoes are becoming more popular and are also part of a high segment. Fresh cut mango is available throughout the year in European supermarkets sold at high prices due to the processing and airfreight costs. However, it does save on shipping weight (no peel, no pit) and provides the consumer with a practical and quality product. Organic mangoes can be difficult to source and are not always available in standard retail.

Top segment

In the top segment, you can find exotic, tree-ripened varieties for luxury and specific ethnic markets. They are valued for their superior taste and sweetness, but their total volumes are very small compared to the common mango trade. The niche demand and the air-freight costs are what makes these mangoes expensive for consumers. They are generally sold by specialist and ethnic retailers or used in the food service industry.

Figure 2: Market segments for mangoes in Europe

Market segments for mangoes in Europe

Source: ICI Business


  • Keep regular contact with your buyers to follow the market developments. This will help you in product planning and segmentation. For instance, picking your mangoes later, ripened for airfreight means you will enter the market later as well; or, in a good market with little supply, lower quality is accepted more easily.

Through what channels do mangoes end up on the end market?

Importers and service providers

Importers play a central role in the distribution of mangoes. They are familiar with all the different requirements of end clients and are able to distribute to different markets.

Some importers have ripening and packing facilities, which are important for the growing segment of ready-to-eat mangoes and for supplying to supermarkets. This is how mango importers such as Nature’s Pride and TFC Holland become full-service providers to supermarkets.

Supermarket programmes

Most mangoes are sold through supermarkets, which become increasingly involved in sourcing. This is relatively easy when mangoes are sourced from Spain. For example, German supermarket Rewe established Eurogroup in Spain to oversee production and sourcing.

However, overseas mango imports during the rest of the season is often complicated. Fluctuations in price, volumes and quality continue to provide opportunities for independent traders. Supply contracts for mango are often combined with purchases on the spot market.

Wholesalers (spot market)

Traditional fruit wholesalers cover the spot market, moving according to trade fluctuations. They supply to specialised shops, street merchants, restaurants and hotel chains. Sometimes these companies combine import and wholesale activities, but a traditional wholesaler does not take many risks with importing long-distance mangoes – with the exception of ethnic mango varieties which are flown in. Typical wholesale markets include Rungis in Paris and Mercabarna in Barcelona.

Due to COVID-19, the sales of air-freighted mangoes from certain origins such as India, Pakistan and Thailand and the sales revenue in the food service sector in Europe have taken a dip. The decrease in trade is expected to recover again from 2021 onwards.

Large fruit wholesalers such as Staay Food Group maintain a large international network and offer their own cash & carry service points, where clients can purchase a wide variety of fruit and vegetables.

Non-specialised (cash & carry) wholesalers such as Metro supply to the same end markets but depend more on the service of importing companies. They are also able to work with long-term contracts, just like supermarkets.

Figure 3: Market channels for mangoes

Market channels for m

Source: ICI Business


  • Choose an importer based on the size and ambition of your company, keeping in mind that importers and distributors vary in their relationships with the retail sector and their level of requirements. Some supply to large retail chains where volume and compliance is strict, while others specialise in the spot market.

What is the most interesting channel for you?

Being part of a retail supply programme gives you the best security and often more profitable margins on average. However, the requirements are high and the room for negotiation is minimal.

The most likely route to become part of a retail programme is to cooperate with a service provider that has a local infrastructure and supply contracts with retailers. Direct sales to supermarkets are much more difficult and only in reach of companies that have the resources to have a presence in Europe and can arrange a year-round supply.

Because mangoes are a difficult product for sourcing, there are plenty of opportunities outside the direct retail approach. Trading companies that supply the spot market are easiest to connect to. In a good market, they can provide you with a very profitable return, but there are no guarantees. The spot market prices fluctuate more and for exporters, there is more risk involved. For mangoes, it is best to find a mango specialist with experience and a large network in the mango business, for example, the Dutch-German company Hars & Hagebauer, which promotes itself as mango specialist.


3. What competition do you face on the European mango market?

Brazil and Peru dominate the mango supply to Europe in the northern hemisphere winter, thanks to large volumes, decent quality and, to a certain extent, a supply security. In the European summer, origins shift to Central America, Dominican Republic, West Africa and Israel, followed by Spain (see Figure 4). Availability and quality determine the sourcing origin of mangoes and that can change from year to year.

Which countries are you competing with?


Mangoes are produced in large scale in Brazil, whose suppliers are renowned as professional mango suppliers. Brazilian growers can provide buyers with relatively stable suppliers for a long period. Brazil has large mango farms and mango cutting facilities, which is why it is the largest exporter of mangoes to Europe.

Import statistics show that Brazilian mangoes are gradually taking a larger market share in European trade compared to other suppliers. European imports of Brazilian mangoes increased in five consecutive years to 175,000 tonnes in 2020. This growth is supported by an expanding production, from a total production volume of 1.4 million tonnes in 2014 to nearly 2.0 million tonnes in 2019. Less than 8% is exported to Europe. Most mangoes are consumed locally.

Brazil is the most dominant supplier on the market in September and October and exports high volumes, before the Peruvian suppliers start exporting. The disadvantage that Brazil has to deal with, is that a significant part of its volume still consists of the less popular Tommy Atkins variety. But this is changing. In recent years they are being gradually replaced with Palmer mangoes, and where possible growers are also producing more Kent and Keitt mangoes. Thanks to the consistent large volumes, Brazil will continue to play an important role in the mango trade.


  • Read how the British retailer Marks & Spencer managed to introduce fresh cut mangoes together with the Brazilian Company Tropical Fresh in the article ‘With love from Brazil: the mango's journey to Britain’ of The Telegraph.
  • Learn from successful mango companies in Brazil. You can find several of these companies on the member list of Abrafrutas, the Brazilian association of producers and exporters of fruit and derivatives.


Peru is one of the fastest growing mango exporting countries, increasing its exports to Europe by 50% in five years – a similar growth rate to Brazil. Peru produces around 500,000 tonnes of mangoes, over 50% is exported and half of those exports are destined for Europe. In 2020, the country exported 132,000 tonnes, which was similar to the peak year 2018.

Because Peru’s mango production targets export markets, they have a variety of cultivars, such as Kent, Edward, Ataulfo, Haden and Keitt mangoes. Peru is seen as a strong supplier in volume, but also has several well-organised exporters able to compete in price and variety. In 2020/2021, the largest exporters were Sunshine Export and Camposol.

Like in most mango-producing countries, the supply season is short. The Peruvian season runs from November to March, with a supply peak in the months of December, January and February. Peru has some overlap with the main supply volume from Brazil in the European winter (see Figure 4), which often leads to uncertainty at the start of the Peruvian season.

Unlike Brazil, Peru exports a large share of its production volume, and fluctuations in production have a larger impact on its export potential. The season 2019/2020 volumes were good, although sizes were smaller than usual and prices fell. The output in 2020/2021 has been much lower due to low temperatures and drought, so there was less export. Nevertheless, as the second-largest supplier to Europe Peru has secured its position for the long term.


Ivory Coast

The season in Ivory Coast follows after the Peruvian season (see Figure 4). For Ivory Coast, mangoes are an important export product, and for European buyers, it is a closer source than South America. This African country has successfully positioned itself as Europe’s third supplying country with a stable export volume of 31 thousand tonnes. The year 2020 broke the continuity due to the COVID-19 pandemic and exports were 5,000 tonnes less than usual.

Quality varies

Ivory Coast is logistically well located and most of the supply from Mali and Burkina Faso has to travel through Ivory Coast. However, like most West African countries, mangoes are produced by small farmers. This results in high variation in quality, making it difficult for importers to organise a reliable supply. Meanwhile, airfreight costs have tripled due to the COVID-19 pandemic, forcing exporters to ask higher prices or ship only by ocean freight. It also lacks a processing industry to absorb lower-quality fruits. On the other hand, Ivory Coast has possibilities for small farmers to work on organic and fair-trade production.

The Ivorian mango sector is still a fragile industry with many logistical and phytosanitary challenges. In 2019 there were 15 interceptions of mango shipments from Ivory Coast that did not fulfil the plant health requirements, opposed to 4 interceptions from the leading supplier Brazil and 12 from Peru. The new phytosanitary rules is used to reduce these excesses, with preliminary positive results for West Africa in 2020.


Dominican Republic

When supply from West Africa is low or poor in quality, the Dominican Republic is a popular source to fill in the supply gaps, if quality is right. The Dominican Republic mainly exports Keitt mangoes with acceptable transit times compared to West African countries.

Up to 2014, Dominican mango exports to Europe developed in large steps, but since then it has been relatively stable. The year 2019 was relatively good with exports to Europe reaching 17,000 tonnes. 2020 proved to be more difficult because flights have been suspended due to COVID-19 and sea freight was insufficient as well. Despite this, the country still supplied Europe with 16,000 tonnes of mangoes.

The Dominican cultivation of mango continues to increase. But the summer is a difficult period to supply mangoes to Europe because there are many origin countries involved. On the other hand, when the global demand is high, Europe has to compete with purchasers in the United States too.


Israel has a good reputation for quality mangoes. The Israeli production volumes at 53 thousand tonnes in 2019 are much smaller than those in Brazil and Peru, but Israeli growers are well integrated with European businesses and always look for new varieties. Besides Kent and Keitt, Israel also introduced other mango varieties in Europe, such as Omer, Shelly and Kasturi.

The Israeli mango supply season is concurrent with Senegal’s and slows down when Spain starts its harvest. In 2020 the exported volume of 11,000 tonnes to Europe was less than usual due to a shortage in volume. There is no indication that Israel will deviate much from their normal supply in the coming years.


Like Ivory Coast, Senegal has sea access and relative proximity to export mangoes to Europe. They also have the advantage of being able to supply Kent mangoes in a period when many other suppliers often only have other varieties available. Senegal’s successful export growth to Europe until 2018 was followed by a slight decline to 14,000 tonnes in 2019 and 10,000 tonnes in 2020. Volumes in 2019 ran out early and in 2020 COVID-19 interrupted the air-freighted mango trade. 2021 has not been much better either, while there was a wide supply from many other countries.

Senegal is a leading mango supplying country from West Africa and relevant to Europe, but also struggles with common issues in the region, such as poor infrastructure, variation in fruit quality and insufficient financial power. Senegal has the potential to position itself as a more dominant supplier, but growth will depend on the ambition of mango exporters and their ability to improve.

Interesting developments: Mexico, India/Pakistan and West Africa

Mexico is still a minor supplier of mangoes to Europe, but it is increasingly competing in the airfreighted Kent mangoes. The total export volume increases every year and reached 5,900 tonnes in 2020.

Up to 2019, Pakistan and India have been supplying specific market segments. Since the import restrictions due to fruit flies have been lifted, India has been able to export more Alphonso and Kesar mangoes to ethnic and specialist buyers, mostly in the United Kingdom. Pakistan is also known for special varieties such as the Chaunsa and Anwar mango. These unique varieties depend on air logistics, so 2020 became a very difficult year because air-freight rates exploded due to the COVID-19 crisis. Exports to Europe, which in 2019 were 11,400 tonnes for Pakistan and 5,300 tonnes for India, declined by around 40% in 2020. With logistics slowly improving, the supply is expected to recover as well in the next years.

West Africa has the interest of many European buyers. They consider this region to be a logical origin for mangoes, despite the sometimes poor quality and phytosanitary issues. Besides Ivory Coast and Senegal, there are other countries showing signs of growth, such as Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana. But it is common knowledge that much has to be done to turn these counties into reliable and stable supply countries. For Burkina Faso and Ghana the trade value per kilo is quite high, an indication that most of the export is air-freighted.

Figure 5: Indicative supply calendar for mangoes

 Indicative supply calendar for mangoes

Source: Compiled by ICI Business


  • Identify your direct competitors according to the supply calendar and check their status. Knowledge is key in taking advantage of supply gaps. Previous seasons and supply volumes can also have great influence on mango demand — try to adapt to these developments.
  • Communicate to buyers when your offer is most ideal in terms of quality and variety, preferably Kent.

Which companies are you competing with?

In the mango trade, you will find different types of suppliers, varying from large-scale and integrated operations to cooperatives of small mango growers. They all have their place in the market, depending on the season and market channel they supply to.

Agrodan – Brazil

Agrodan is one of the main mango suppliers from Brazil. They produce mangoes on 1,000 hectares and their export is fully prepared to enter several supermarkets in Europe. Besides GlobalG.A.P., which is a necessity, they adopted the specific retail standards of Marks & Spencer’s Field to Fork, Tesco Nurture and Albert Heijn protocols. By working according to these standards, they are perceived as a serious and well organised supplier.

The mango cultivation of Agrodan’s is concentrated in one region in the north of Brazil. This means that in spite of being a large supplier, they depend on the yields and the climate of a single region.


  • Use your size to promote yourself, if possible, or try to combine forces with other mango companies. When you become a medium or large producer, you have better chances with larger buyers in the supermarket channel.

Dominius – Peru

Dominus works with a group of 30 farmers with a total of 500 hectares growing mangoes and avocados. Having the Fair for Life label on their mangoes, they have an added value in the European market, being recognised for their social responsibility and their efforts for local communities in Peru.

Their client, Nature’s Pride in the Netherlands, appreciates the social focus of the company and has been buying their mangoes since 2007. However, it will be a challenge for Dominus to keep up with the fast developments taking place in Peru, where other producing exporters are rapidly increasing standards and production volumes.


  • Add value by adapting social certifications or organising community projects.
  • Try to integrate or join forces with strategic buyers. Large fruit buyers such as Total Produce Group and Greenyard, and sometimes specialist buyers such as Nature’s Pride, often support or participate financially in the businesses of their suppliers.

Les Saveurs du Sud – Senegal

It is difficult for small farmers to reach international markets. Senegal’s Copex-Sud cooperative, which has 3,500 producing members, managed to get investors and support organisations on board such as Oiko Credit and CBI. By setting up the commercial company Les Saveurs du Sud and a processing plant for mangoes, they were able to secure export markets in Europe.


  • Become investable as a supplier. Show social impact through a great number of growers and organise your supply chain and export potential well.

Which products are you competing with?

Competition between varieties

Kent and Keitt mangoes are most in demand. Palmer is considered a good alternative to replace the less attractive Tommy Atkins mangoes, but according to market specialists it does not ripen as well as Kent or Keitt. In the end, several mango cultivars are still needed to meet demand. Airfreighted and special mango varieties are part of a different segment and pose little threat to the main mango varieties.

Competition with local summer fruit

Mangoes face competition from local seasonal fruit in Europe, such as stone fruit, soft fruit and melons. During the summer season, consumers prefer to enjoy local fruits, which are widely available, good quality and economically priced. Especially in southern Europe (Portugal, Spain, Italy and France), consumers prefer local seasonal fruit over imported mangoes. The COVID-19 pandemic and rising logistical costs also contribute to a greater focus on nearby suppliers. Despite the increasing preference for local fruit, mango is expected to continue to gain market value in the future.


  • Make sure to have alternative markets you can supply to when Europe is not able to provide acceptable prices for your mangoes.

4. What are the prices for mangoes on the European market?

Price development

For mangoes, December is generally a good month with relatively good prices because people tend to spend more on food. January can be a difficult month to get good prices, because that is when Peru and Brazil are in the market with high volumes at the same time. In January and February, there is a hectic flow of Peruvian mangoes on the market. In July and August, there is sometimes a second dip in prices. In August, Brazil starts to increase its supply, while demand in Europe is low due to competition from local summer fruit. In the end, every year is different and supply remains very unpredictable.

Since 2015, the average prices for mangoes seem to have decreased, but this is not necessarily a trend that will continue. Fluctuations in supply and quality affect prices and are difficult to predict at this moment.

The year 2019 was an off-year for Spain, which led to good prices in the European summer until the larger volumes of Brazil and Peru came onto the market. The price level dropped in the winter of 2019/20 due to a large volume of small-sized mangoes. At the start of 2020, supply was still strong and there was no price peak in March and April like last year. Due to increasing costs of the COVID-19 measures and logistics, the price level maintained itself (see Figure 6). In continuation of the 2020/2021 season, the supply has been limited, but so has been the demand in many countries. Therefore price peaks were avoided.

Figure 6: Example of import price development per calendar month in the Netherlands in 1,000 tonnes and euro/kg

Example of import price development per calendar month in the Netherlands

Source: ITC Trademap

Prices per channel

The market for mangoes can be unstable with fluctuating availability and prices. European prices (selling prices by importers) for sea-freighted mangoes generally range between €3 and €8 (see Table 3), or more or less expensive than that in exceptional markets. Availability has a relatively big influence on mango prices. The biggest impact on mango prices are temporary shortfalls and oversupply from various supply countries being in the market at the same time.

The wholesale prices for tree-ripened, airfreighted mangoes is much higher. These are approximately three times the normal value, mainly due to the extra transport costs. Importers and retailers mostly benefit from these higher prices, although the risk of losing overripe fruit is also higher. The prices for airfreighted mangoes increased significantly due to the soaring transport prices and lack of flights during the COVID-19 lockdowns. These prices are expected to remain high as long as logistical costs do not go down.

Importers generally maintain a profit margin of at least 8% over the sale price. For niche varieties these margins can be considerably higher, corresponding to the smaller volumes and the higher risks involved.

In retail, mangoes usually sell for between €1.50 and €2. Fresh cut mango is available in European supermarkets for approximately €2 euros up to 200g or €10–€12 euros per kilo. Airfreighted whole mango sells for a little under €5 per piece.

Figure 7: Indicative price breakdown for sea and airfreighted mangoes, in euros per 4 kg box

Indicative price breakdown for sea and airfreighted mangoes, in euros per 4 kg box

Source: ICI Business

Table 3: Importer spot prices in euros per 4kg box




















  • Check wholesale price information at France Agrimer to get a rough idea about mango wholesale prices in France.

This study has been carried out on behalf of CBI by ICI Business.

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