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What is the demand for IT Outsourcing Services on the European market?

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The European IT outsourcing (ITO) market offers opportunities, despite disruption by COVID-19. ITO helps European companies focus on their core business and reduce costs, which became particularly relevant during the pandemic. Northern and Western European countries are the main ITO markets. Your ideal target market also depends on factors such as openness to offshoring and the presence of diaspora. However, specialisation creates potential in any sector. Cybersecurity has become the most in-demand IT skill.

1. What makes Europe an interesting market for ITO?

ITO refers to companies outsourcing IT tasks to external service providers. These providers can be domestic, nearshore or offshore. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has put the ITO market under pressure, it has also boosted digitalisation among European companies. Because of this, Europe continues to offer relatively good opportunities. As prices in nearshore countries in for example Central and Eastern Europe rise, offshoring to developing countries becomes more attractive. The presence of diaspora in Europe can provide a further basis for offshore ITO activities.

Nearshoring versus offshoring

European companies prefer to outsource services to providers within the same country, a practice also known as domestic outsourcing. When outsourcing abroad, they prefer providers in nearshore locations because of proximity, language, cultural similarities and minimal time differences. For example, in 2019 67% of Dutch companies that outsourced their software development used European service providers (and 33% offshore). IT projects are often complex, long, variable, and also critical to the client’s strategic future. This makes good communication between client and provider particularly important.

The most popular nearshoring locations for Western European companies are Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, such as Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. Not only do these countries offer the usual nearshoring benefits, but as they are members of the European Union, contracts and payments are governed and protected by the same European legislation as in the buyer countries.

However, prices in nearshore countries are rising, especially within the European Union. This makes service providers in these countries less price competitive than offshore service providers, which in turn makes European companies more open to outsourcing to farther destinations. To benefit from these developments, you can choose to form subcontracting partnerships with these nearshoring providers, or compete with them. In addition, the increased familiarity with remote working because of the COVID-19 pandemic seems to be working in favour of offshoring.

The Global Services Location Index (GSLI) ranks ITO/BPO destinations based on 4 categories: financial attractiveness, people skills and availability, business environment and digital resonance. This can give you an idea of the competitiveness of your country. The GSLI is compiled by Kearney, a global management consulting company active in more than 40 countries.

Tips:

  • Limit the possible disadvantages of being offshore. Provide excellent communication, availability in the required time zone, and good security and privacy measures.
  • Differentiate yourself from domestic and nearshore providers to remain competitive. Emphasise how you are different in your marketing message. Do not compete only on price, but also analyse what other advantages you can offer, such as access to skills or specialised industry expertise.
  • Research what your competitors are doing right and wrong, to learn how you can differentiate yourself from them.
  • Partner with nearshore service providers, for example in CEE countries, that may be looking for cheaper providers with available workforce. Many service providers in developing countries have not yet recognised this opportunity.

COVID-19 boosts European demand for ITO

Determining the exact size of the European ITO market is difficult, as definitions and indicators differ greatly depending on the source. This makes the various values impossible to compare and combine.

To present a coherent and consistent estimate across the European market, this study uses data from several global and European editions of the ISG Index. ISG (Information Services Group) is a global technology research and advisory company, specialised in digital transformation services. The ISG Index measures commercial outsourcing contracts with an annual contract value (ACV) of €5 million or more, giving an indication of the general ITO market. While the ACV for Europe also includes the Middle East and Africa (EMEA), these contracts are mainly European.

With worldwide ITO contract values of around €46 billion in 2020, Europe (EMEA) accounts for about a third of the global market.

Between 2016 and 2020, the European ITO market (including domestic, nearshore and offshore outsourcing) grew from €9.1 billion to around €16 billion worth of contracts per year. This represents an average annual increase of 14%. After stabilising at €14 billion in 2019, European ACV grew strongly again in 2020 on the back of the COVID-19 pandemic. The market is generally expected to keep growing.

Within the ITO ACVs, the ISG Index highlights Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). In 2021, demand is increasing particularly for such cloud-based services, which are expected to overtake “traditional” ITO ACV in the coming years.

Digitalisation drives ITO demand

At the outset of the pandemic, digital adoption made 5 years’ worth of progress in just 8 weeks. Companies’ ability to stay operational often hinged on their level of digitalisation, particularly their cloud-based solutions. In a global KPMG survey into the impact of COVID-19 on digital transformation, 67% of respondents say they have accelerated their digital transformation strategy as a result of COVID-19 and 63% say they have increased their digital transformation budget.

Companies are moving into the cloud (quicker) and need tailor-made solutions to do so. For example, as working from home has become the norm, staff need remote access to their files and programmes. Now that consumers have further embraced online shopping, retailers need web shops and apps, and the travel industry needs digital solutions to provide a contactless experience.

This trend is projected to continue in the coming years, as, for example, International Data Corporation (IDC, a leading global provider of market intelligence, advisory services and events for the IT, telecommunications and consumer technology markets) expects direct digital transformation investment to grow at an average annual rate of 15.5% from 2020 to 2023. Companies have become aware of the possibility that this type of disruption could occur again, and of the potential effects on their business. At the same time, hiring staff to develop digital tools is generally not feasible. To solve this, businesses are coming to realise that ITO can make them more flexible and resilient in difficult times.

The pandemic has disrupted business on a global scale, affecting many outsourcing providers. On the one hand, many clients cancelled non-essential activities, moved their outsourced tasks back in-house, or even ceased trading altogether. On the other hand, as lockdowns forced many Europeans to stay home, the pandemic has highlighted the benefits of IT solutions for both internal business processes and for engaging with clients.

The notion that the pandemic has posed a challenge for some outsourcing providers, while offering opportunities for others, was clearly reflected in recent CBI webinars. Although 56-60% of participants (from developing countries) reported that their business has been negatively affected, a promising 25-30% reported a positive effect.

How exactly the European offshore ITO market for SMEs will develop in the coming year(s) is uncertain, as the situation has yet to stabilise. While increased digitalisation offers good opportunities, uncertainty is almost always bad for business. In general, the pandemic made it difficult to renew contracts and/or find new buyers. Decision making often slowed down or even stalled, and buyers and potential new providers cannot visit each other’s offices.

Of those companies that are reconsidering their ITO strategies, some may move their offshored activities to nearshore or domestic providers in search of stability. Others may actually have become more interested in offshoring as a much-needed way to save costs. Another way for buyers to minimise risks is to diversify, by hiring providers from several locations. This strategy could offer opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) like you.

Tips:

Skills shortage

In Europe, there is a large gap between the number of IT jobs and the number of available IT professionals. In 2014, the European Commission predicted a shortage of 900,000 IT professionals for 2020. In 2017, they adjusted this prediction to a shortage of 500,000. Although it may be smaller than initially estimated, the shortage is real: more than half of European companies that tried to recruit report difficulties in recruiting IT specialists.

To fill the gap, many companies in Europe try to hire IT staff from abroad. Since the shortage affects most European countries, and most European developers prefer jobs within their own country, companies regularly recruit talent from outside Europe. An easier option, which provides more flexibility, is to outsource IT tasks to offshore providers like you. The recent increase in remote working due to lockdowns may spur this on, as it blurs the distinction between in-house, nearshore and offshore teams.

ITO allows buyers to focus on their core business functions

A major advantage of outsourcing IT services is that European end-user companies do not need to hire in-house expertise if they outsource these activities. IT services require excellent knowledge, skills, tools and security provisions that most European end-user companies do not have. Outsourcing allows them to focus on their core business and brings them scalability: the flexibility to engage IT specialists as and when needed.

This is particularly relevant during the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Companies need the staff they retained to perform their core activities, which may already include additional tasks from colleagues that were laid off or furloughed. There is also relatively little room in the budgets for new hires, making outsourcing an attractive solution.

Cost reduction continues to be a motive for ITO

Cost reduction remains an important reason for European companies to outsource IT services to providers abroad. IT specialists generally cost less per hour in developing countries than in Europe. The continued shortage of IT skills in Europe further increases the cost of the available specialists, who are in high demand. This is good news for outsourcing companies in developing countries, who are often able to offer similar services for lower prices.

Although cost savings were no longer the main motive for outsourcing, companies that were/are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic have tighter budgets than before. In fact, cost reduction now seems to have become a (or the) primary reason for ITO again, ahead of factors such as flexibility. This could make offshoring to developing countries more attractive. Be aware however, that if your offer is “too cheap”, European buyers may think it must be too good to be true and assume your service quality is low.

Tips:

  • Offer competitive pricing, but do not compromise on the quality of your services. Try not to compete only on price.
  • Be transparent in your pricing. Clearly show what service clients get for what price. Make sure you include everything they might need in your offer to avoid hidden costs, such as fees they have to pay for extra services that were not mentioned beforehand.
  • In addition to your competitive prices, promote your expertise, experience, references, capacity, flexibility, reliability and communication capabilities.

Sustainability is becoming a requirement

Besides (or instead of) cost reduction, sustainability is becoming a key factor for European ITO buyers, when selecting a service provider. ISO 26000 provides guidance on corporate social responsibility (CSR). For ITO SMEs like you, labour practices, fair operating practices and community involvement are the most relevant aspects of the ISO 26000 standard.

An example of social sustainability in ITO is impact sourcing, which aims to improve people’s lives, families, and communities through meaningful employment. For buyers it means prioritising suppliers who provide learning and career development opportunities to people who otherwise had limited prospects for long-term sustainable employment. This is often a catalyst for continuous job creation and benefits the whole community. Benefits for buyers include low costs, reliable service delivery, a large talent pool, and a stable and engaged workforce.

Since 1 January 2021, the government of the United Kingdom has allocated 10% of the points in its Requests for Proposals to social value. Similar arrangements are seen across Europe, in both governments and companies (also SMEs). Other countries and companies are expected to follow.

Tips:

  • Read more about Corporate Social Responsibility in practice on the website of the European Commission.
  • Show that you care about your impact on society and the environment by implementing your own CSR policy. It can be a unique selling point (USP) when your buyer has to select a provider.
  • Start an impact sourcing pilot project to see how it can benefit your business and the community. Ask business support organisations in your region how to realise such a pilot project. Examples are Harambee in South Africa, Sama in India, Pakistan, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda, Alorica in Latin America and the Caribbean, or the Mandela Legacy Foundation in South Africa.
  • To qualify as an impact sourcing provider, show buyers that you are actively hiring and training people who generally have limited employment opportunities.
  • For more information about sustainability (including CSR and impact sourcing) in ITO, see our study about trends on the European outsourcing market and our study about buyer requirements.

Diversity brings opportunity

Europe is a large and diverse market for ITO services. Together, the European Union (EU), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) nations and the United Kingdom consist of 32 countries that speak 28 different official languages. Including the United Kingdom, Europe has a total population of around 527 million people. Although Europe is seen as one market from an economic perspective, each country has its own profile based on characteristics such as demographics, historical ties, business culture and etiquette. This diversity brings a variety of opportunities.

The presence of different migrant communities also adds to the diversity of opportunities on the European market. This so-called diaspora can form the basis of outsourcing to (developing) countries of heritage. Often family, friends or business relations can function as entry points to the market. Around 34 million people in Europe are members of diasporas from developing countries, which is about 6% of the European population. The largest of these communities reside in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands.

Of the developing countries of origin in Figure 3, India and Ukraine are best known for their outsourcing potential. Other well-known outsourcing destinations with large migrant communities in Europe include Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Pakistan and Serbia. The diverse diaspora in European countries means there are various opportunities for connections of which you can potentially benefit.

Tips:

2. Which European markets offer most opportunities for ITO suppliers in developing countries?

Europe is not a uniform market for ITO providers. Northern and Western European countries are traditionally the largest ITO markets. While the largest countries offer opportunities based on their size, some of the smaller countries are key players in the IT industry. In addition, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is becoming a promising market for partnerships with nearshore providers.

Northern and Western Europe are the largest European ITO markets

* DACH: Germany, Austria and Switzerland
** Nordics: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Iceland
Source: ISG Index EMEA 2019

Figure 4 shows how different European regions compare to each other in terms of ITO ACV and annual growth between 2017 and 2019. It illustrates that Northern and Western European countries are traditionally the leading markets for ITO. Although the exact figures are unavailable, the COVID-19 pandemic drove ITO ACV in these countries to contribute to Europe’s strong performance in 2020.

While the largest countries offer opportunities based on their size, some of the smaller countries are relatively open to outsourcing and/or specialise in IT. In smaller countries, the tech talent tends to be concentrated in a single hub, such as Copenhagen (Denmark) and Amsterdam (the Netherlands). In countries such as Germany, tech talent is often distributed across several large cities.

The United Kingdom remains attractive despite Brexit

The United Kingdom is the second-largest economy in Europe. Among its main sectors are finance and banking, which are included in the services sector, the biggest contributor to the British Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Outsourcing is a common practice in this sector, stimulating the demand for ITO services in the United Kingdom.

Of all European markets, the United Kingdom is the most open to offshore outsourcing and the least cautious about doing business with developing countries. This openness is due to the nation’s cost-saving business culture and historical ties to many countries across the globe. Language barriers are low, as the United Kingdom’s official language is English. This makes the British market relatively accessible for offshore providers.

Despite the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit), the combined ACV in the United Kingdom and Ireland increased at a modest average annual rate of 4.9%, to €4.1 billion in 2019. For the coming years, the exact effects of Brexit, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, are unclear. Offshore ITO suppliers could benefit from the IT skills shortage that may increase.

There are around 5 million migrants with developing country origins in the United Kingdom. This is about 8% of the total British population. The largest of these communities consist of people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, South Africa, China and Nigeria. Particularly India and Pakistan are well-known providers on the British outsourcing market.

Germany may become more open towards offshoring

Germany is the largest economy in Europe, home to 19% of the European Union’s population. The European Commission projects German GDP to be back at pre-COVID-19 levels in 2021.

The combined ITO market in the DACH region performed particularly well in 2018, before returning to its position as the second largest region for ITO in Europe. With an average annual growth rate of 16% since 2017, the ACV reached €4.0 million in 2019. Although this makes Germany an interesting market, German companies are less open to offshore outsourcing than those in countries like the United Kingdom.

However, as German businesses continue to face skills shortages and become more experienced in offshoring, their attitude towards it is improving. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic may create more opportunities for you on the German market, as it has softened Germany’s generally stiff corporate culture and shown companies what is possible with remote working and outsourcing.

There could be some language barriers when providing ITO services to Germany. German companies generally prefer to do business in German, which is why they tend to prefer nearshoring when they outsource. Generally, you need an intermediary in Germany to communicate with (potential) clients for you. If you meet these criteria, you could also target German-speaking companies in the other DACH-countries Austria and Switzerland.

Germany is home to nearly 6 million migrants of developing country origins, adding up to around 7 % of the total population. The largest of these communities are people with heritage from Turkey, Kazakhstan, the Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. As Germany has relatively strong ties to CEE, opportunities on the Germany ITO market are particularly strong for countries from this region.

The Nordic ITO market offers opportunities

The Nordic countries individually are smaller than other European markets, but they can be relatively open to outsourcing. People from these countries are highly proficient in English, which makes doing business relatively easy. Although the Nordic workforces have some of the highest shares of IT specialists in Europe, this is not enough to meet demand. For example, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment reports that the limited availability of skilled labour is threatening to halt the Finnish software sector's growth.

The Nordic ITO market has performed particularly well in recent years, with a combined ACV of €2.0 billion in 2019. This translates to an average annual increase of 23%, suggesting there are good opportunities in this market. In addition, the Nordic economies are reported to be among the less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Around 2 million migrants with developing country heritage reside in the Nordic countries, more than half of whom in Sweden. This represents about 8% of the total Nordic population. However, the benefits of diaspora connections may be limited in this market as the largest of these communities (Syrian and Iraqi) do not originate from countries with a strong ITO sector.

France is particularly interesting for francophone African providers

As the third largest economy in Europe, France is another European market that is particularly interesting because of its size. In addition, French GDP is expected return to its pre-pandemic level at the beginning of 2022. The French ACV increased from €1.0 billion in 2017 to €1.20 million in 2019, at an average annual growth rate of 12%.

To provide ITO services to French companies, it helps if you are fluent in French. As French is the official language in 29 countries worldwide, for many service providers this requirement is not a barrier to market entry. Instead, it makes France a particularly interesting target market for providers from African countries such as Senegal. Offering services in French also allows you to target francophone companies in Belgium and Switzerland.

Many people from former French colonies attend university in France. This direct link to France can facilitate outsourcing when they return home. There are also nearly 6 million migrants in France with developing country origins, representing around 8% of the French population. The largest of these communities consist of people from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam, Madagascar and Senegal. This illustrates France’s connection to French-speaking countries, which generally have the greatest chances of success on the French ITO market.

The Netherlands is open towards outsourcing

The Netherlands has the sixth-highest GDP in Europe. An impressive 60% of all Forbes 2000 IT companies have established operations in the Netherlands, making it a real IT hotspot. The country’s general profile is fairly similar to that of the Nordic countries. Like in the Nordic region, the Dutch economy seems to be among the less affected by the pandemic, as the Dutch GDP is projected to return to 2019 levels in 2021.

Companies in the Netherlands are also relatively open towards outsourcing. Another similarity is that language barriers for doing business in the Netherlands are generally low, as the Dutch are very proficient in English.

The Netherlands hosts about 1.4 million migrants with developing country origins, representing roughly 8% of the total Dutch population. The largest of these communities consist of people with heritage from Turkey, Suriname, Morocco, Indonesia, China and the Syrian Arab Republic.

Poland may need offshore partners to keep up with demand

Within CEE, Poland is a major player in the IT industry. The country has the highest number of tech-related start-ups in the region, and is home to about 25% of the developer population. These Polish professionals rank as the number 3 best developers in the world, which adds to Poland’s popularity as a nearshoring destination for European buyers.

To meet the demand from its flourishing IT industry, Poland may increasingly need to turn to offshore partners. Especially considering Polish GDP is expected to rebound in 2021, making it one of the first European economies to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. As the country has the highest hourly rates for software development in CEE (€34 to €47), Polish software companies can actually save quite some costs by outsourcing some development tasks or projects to you.

Tips:

  • Consider your present network, the openness towards outsourcing, labour costs, language, and historical bonds when selecting your priority market.
  • Be aware European partners may be sceptical of offshoring, so you need to earn their trust and work hard to keep it once you have it. Proving to be trustworthy, honest and transparent will make you stand out from your competition and add to your partner’s openness and willingness to outsource.
  • If you choose to work with a representative in your target market, keep in mind that they should be a well-connected expert. For example, your uncle who lives in Germany might not be the best intermediary for your company. See our study on the European intermediary landscape for ITO and BPO services for more information.
  • For more information about various ITO destinations, such as average rates, see the Daxx-blog.

3. Which services from developing countries have most potential on the European ITO market?

Increased digitalisation boosts the demand for ITO. Cybersecurity skills have become the most needed. Medium-sized enterprises are your most suitable potential buyers. These companies are a good match for you when it comes to capacity and flexibility. Although the financial services sector is Europe’s largest ITO market, specialisation can create opportunities in any sector.

Cybersecurity skills have become the most needed

In recent years, companies have faced an increasing number of cyber-attacks, and tightened data security legislation and the COVID-19 pandemic are driving the need for remote working security solutions. It perhaps comes as no surprise then, that cybersecurity skills have become the most sought-after IT expertise, especially in cloud and data security.

According to Global Knowledge, the most in-demand IT skills are:

  1. Cybersecurity

This includes, for example, identity and access management, infrastructure security and data security. Demand for cybersecurity is booming, due to increased digitalisation, legislation and awareness. The European cybersecurity market is estimated at €38.13 billion by 2025.

  1. Cloud computing

As discussed, demand for cloud-based services is surging. Particularly since the pandemic has led to accelerated digitalisation. Cloud-computing skills are essential because they are used in just about any type of ITO-service. The European cloud computing market is projected to reach €136 billion in 2025.

  1. Data analytics and data science

As the amount of data produced in Europe grows, so does the need for services that help companies to use this data to their advantage. As a result, the European market for big data and business analytics solutions is projected to increase from about €43 billion in 2021 to about €66 billion in 2025.

  1. Networking and wireless

With the use of digital solutions comes the need for the IT infrastructure to support them. These types of services generally are not outsourced to offshore providers.

  1. Software development

Software development services are a key segment within ITO, in which cybersecurity is a top priority. Again, increased digitalisation leads to increased demand for software solutions. The European software market is expected to grow from about €126 billion in 2021 to about €253 billion in 2026.

  1. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning

As European demand for AI is growing across industries, the market is expected to reach more than €40 billion in 2025. If you provide services in this sector, you should stay up to date on the European Commission’s proposal for a regulatory framework on AI.

While experimenting with emerging technologies such as Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) may be optional for European companies, investing in cybersecurity is not. The same applies to most other areas of expertise in the top 6. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has driven home the need for employees to have remote access to documents and tools/platforms/programmes via the cloud. At the same time, emerging technologies offer opportunities as well. Specialising now means less competition in the short term and gives you a head start as the market matures.

Tips:

  • For more information on providing services in these areas, see our studies on specific services.
  • See Stack Overflow’s annual Developer Survey for an overview of the most popular programming languages and other tools and technologies.

European SMEs are your most suitable buyers

As an SME, your best strategy is to focus on providing ITO services for your fellow SMEs in Europe. This generally ensures a good match between you and your buyer on characteristics such as capacity and flexibility. As 99% of businesses in the European Union are SMEs, this offers great potential.

In 2018, the Harvey Nash / KPMG CIO Survey indicated that the demand for skills differs between small and large enterprises. Larger organisations seek significantly more experts in emerging technologies such as AI and automation/robotics. Smaller organisations more often face a skills shortage in traditional IT roles such as business analysis, project management and development.

Tip:

  • Be realistic when you look for clients and focus on those you can really serve. Do not pursue big names and large corporations unless you can offer them something they really need in terms of, for example, highly specialised skills.

Specialisation offers opportunities in any sector

The ITO market can be segmented into various sectors or industries, the so-called vertical markets. Figure 5 shows the total global outsourcing ACV for 2020 per commercial sector. This combined value of €50 billion consists of around 91% ITO and 9% BPO contracts. This is similar to Europe, where ITO accounts for 92% and BPO for 8%.

The largest global market for ITO is the financial services sector, also known as BFSI: banking, financial services and insurance. Other large markets are the business services and manufacturing industries, with impressive growth rates of 11% and 22% respectively for 2020, compared to 4% for BFSI. Demand is mainly increasing for as-a-service solutions. In Europe specifically, manufacturing is a key market.

Although BFSI, business services and manufacturing have the highest global ACV, other sectors offer good opportunities too. The key is to reduce competition by specialising in a specific sector, or even a specific service for that particular sector. This type of expertise gives you a competitive advantage in whichever sector you focus on. Although staff can be trained in a new field, existing knowledge and experience is generally preferred. This also makes it easier to provide a relevant reference when you are trying to find new buyers.

There is generally less competition in niche markets, which leads to higher (and more stable) prices and loyalty from buyers. For example, offering FinTech services for a bank requires a thorough knowledge and understanding of European financial legislation. In contrast, developing VR/AR applications for the real estate sector requires completely different skills and expertise. The more you invest in specialising and finding your comfortable niche market, the better your chances of finding clients and partners.

Tips:

  • Assess your opportunities in the various vertical segments. Which industry are you most experienced in? Do you have access to talent in a particular sector?
  • When you have selected the niche market(s) you are focusing on, make sure to keep your expertise up to date and stay ahead of the competition.
  • See our studies about specific services to determine the competition for specific services.
  • For more information on how to find and approach European SMEs, see our tips for finding buyers and tips for doing business.

This study has been carried out on behalf of CBI by Globally Cool B.V. in collaboration with Laszlo Klucs.

Please review our market information disclaimer.

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The idea that people need to be co-located for the best results is being reconsidered due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Now that European teams don’t spend 5 days per week together anymore, companies realise that isn’t necessary. This lowers the threshold for outsourcing.

Lead Agile test consultant at a European software testing company